Appendix for All in the Family: Christians, Jews, and God

by Michael Forrest and David Palm

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The following is a broad sampling of quotes from the Scriptures, the Fathers and the Magisterium, as well as other Church documents showing that the Gospel of Jesus Christ and His Church is for all men—Jew and Gentile alike:

The Scriptures

Jeremiah 31:31–34: “Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant which they broke, though I was their husband, says the LORD. But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put my law within them, and I will write it upon their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.”

Matthew 28:19–20: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age.”

John 3:5: Jesus, speaking to a leader of the Pharisees, said, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God.”

John 6:53: Jesus, speaking to Jews, said, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you.”

Romans 1:16: St. Paul, himself a Jew, writes: “I am not ashamed of the gospel: it is the power of God for salvation to every one who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.”

Galatians 2:16: St. Paul writes, “A man is not justified by the works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ . . . for by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified.”

Galatians 2:21: St. Paul continues, “I do not set aside the grace of God; for if righteousness comes through the law, then Christ died in vain.”

1 Timothy 2:5: St. Paul writes, “For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all.”

Acts 3:19–24: Speaking to Jews in Jerusalem, St. Peter said, “Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord. . . . Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet from your brethren as he raised me up. You shall listen to him in whatever he tells you. And it shall be that every soul that does not listen to that prophet shall be destroyed from the people.’ And all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and those who came afterwards, also proclaimed these days.”

Acts 4:12: “There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.”

Acts 13:38: Speaking at the synagogue in Pisidia, St. Paul writes, “Let it be known to you . . . that through [Christ] forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, and by him every one that believes is freed from everything from which you could not be freed by the law of Moses.”

Colossians 2:14: “Having canceled the bond which stood against us with its legal demands; this he set aside, nailing it to the cross”

John 2:23: “Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father either; he who acknowledges the Son has the Father also.”

Hebrews 7:18: “On the one hand, a former commandment is set aside because of its weakness and uselessness (for the law made nothing perfect).”

The Fathers

Justin Martyr: “But we do not trust through Moses or through the law; for then we would do the same as yourselves. But now —(for I have read that there shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the inheritance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone; but this is for all universally. Now, law placed against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covenant which comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one; and an eternal and final law—namely, Christ—has been given to us, and the covenant is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no ordinance. Have you not read this which Isaiah says: ‘Hearken unto Me, hearken unto Me, my people; and, you kings, give ear unto Me: for a law shall go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in My arm?’ And by Jeremiah, concerning this same new covenant, He thus speaks: ‘Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt.’” ( Dialogue with Trypho, Chapter 11)

Tertullian: “In short, the coming procession of a new law out of this ‘house of God of Jacob,’ Isaiah in the ensuing words announces, saying, ‘For from Zion shall go out a law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem, and shall judge among the nations,’—that is, among us, who have been called out of the nations,—‘and they shall join to beat their glaives into ploughs, and their lances into sickles; and ploughs, and not take up glaive against nation, and they shall no more learn to fight.’ Who else, therefore, are understood but we, who, fully taught by the new law, observe these practices,—the old law being obliterated, the coming of whose abolition the action itself demonstrates. . . . Therefore, as we have shown above that the coming cessation of the old law and of the carnal circumcision was declared, so, too, the observance of the new law and the spiritual circumcision has shone out into the voluntary observances of peace.” (An Answer to the Jews, Chapter 3)

St. Augustine: “Instead of the grace of the law which has passed away, we have received the grace of the gospel which is abiding; and instead of the shadows and types of the old dispensation, the truth has come by Jesus Christ. Jeremiah also prophesied thus in God’s name: ‘Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt.’ [Jer 31:31–32] Observe what the prophet says, not to Gentiles, who had not been partakers in any former covenant, but to the Jewish nation. He who has given them the law by Moses, promises in place of it the new covenant of the gospel, that they might no longer live in the oldness of the letter, but in the newness of the spirit.” (Letters, 75, 4)

Magisterial and Other Church Documents

The Good Friday prayer recently approved by Pope Benedict XVI, according to the Roman Missal of 1962 (2008)

“Let us also pray for the Jews that God our Lord should illuminate their hearts, so that they will recognize Jesus Christ, the Savior of all men.” (emphasis added)

The Liturgy of the Hours

December 31, Morning Prayer, Intercessions: “Christ . . . Lord of David and Son of David, fulfillment of all prophecies—we pray that Israel may recognize you as its Messiah.”

January 2, Morning Prayer, Intercessions: “Christ . . . confessed and proclaimed by Simeon and Anna, let your Gospel be accepted by the people of the promise.”

Doctrinal Note on Some Aspects of Evangelization
(2007), Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

By means of the Church, Christ wants to be present in every historical epoch, every place on earth and every sector of society, in order to reach every person, so that there may be one flock and one shepherd (cf. Jn 10:16).” (no. 1)

“The term evangelization has a very rich meaning. In the broad sense, it sums up the Church’s entire mission: her whole life consists in accomplishing the traditio Evangelii, the proclamation and handing on of the Gospel, which is ‘the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes’ (Rom 1:16) and which, in the final essence, is identified with Jesus Christ himself (cf. 1 Cor 1:24).” (no. 2)

“Thus, it is evident how every activity of the Church has an essential evangelizing dimension and must never be separated from the commitment to help all persons to meet Christ in faith, which is the primary objective of evangelization.” (no. 2)

“There is today, however, a growing confusion which leads many to leave the missionary command of the Lord unheard and ineffective (cf. Mt 28:19). Often it is maintained that any attempt to convince others on religious matters is a limitation of their freedom. From this perspective, it would only be legitimate to present one’s own ideas and to invite people to act according to their consciences, without aiming at their conversion to Christ and to the Catholic faith. . . . Furthermore, some maintain that Christ should not be proclaimed to those who do not know him, nor should joining the Church be promoted, since it would also be possible to be saved without explicit knowledge of Christ and without formal incorporation in the Church.” (no. 3)

“The primary motive of evangelization is the love of Christ for the eternal salvation of all. The sole desire of authentic evangelizers is to bestow freely what they themselves have freely received.” (no. 8, emphasis added).

“Since the beginning, the Gospel, in the power of the Spirit, is proclaimed to all people so that they might believe and become disciples of Christ and members of his Church” (no. 9, emphasis added).

“The mission of the Church is universal and is not restricted to specific regions of the earth. Evangelization, however, is undertaken differently according to the different situations in which it occurs. In its precise sense, evangelization is the missio ad gentes directed to those who do not know Christ.” (no. 12)

“This teaching [on the necessity of the Church for salvation] does not contradict the universal salvific will of God, who ‘desires that all men be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth’ (1 Tim 2:4); therefore, ‘it is necessary to keep these two truths together, namely, the real possibility of salvation in Christ for all mankind and the necessity of the Church for salvation’ (John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris missio, 9: AAS 83 [1991], 258).” (endnote #2)

Clarifications Required by the Book Being Religious Interreligiously: Asian Perspectives on Interfaith Dialogue by Reverend Peter C. Phan
(Committee on Doctrine United States Conference of Catholic Bishops)

“If one accepts that Jesus Christ is in fact the one affirmed by Christian faith as the eternal Son of God made man, through whom the universe was created and by whose death and resurrection the human race has the possibility of attaining eternal life, then it is incoherent to argue that it would somehow be better if certain people were not told this truth. The Church’s evangelizing mission is not an imposition of power but an expression of love for the whole world. The very fact that other religions do not possess the fullness of the Father’s truth revealed in Jesus Christ and the fullness of the Father’s love that is poured out in the Holy Spirit ought to compel Christians, in their love for all men and women, to share their faith with others. To offer others the gift of Jesus Christ is to offer them the greatest and most valuable of all gifts, for he is the Father’s merciful gift to all. Thus there is no necessary conflict between showing respect for other religions and fulfilling Christ’s command to proclaim the Gospel to all the nations.” (nos. 21–22)

“Christian theology, however, is founded upon supernatural revelation accepted in faith, not simply upon a natural capacity of the human person to obtain knowledge of God. The Christian theologian, having first embraced the truths of revelation as found within the biblical proclamation and the Church’s doctrinal tradition, strives to come to a deeper understanding and appreciation of what God has revealed. For the Christian theologian, the significance and validity of other religious beliefs can only be evaluated from within this faith perspective. Christian revelation demands that the salvific value of any religious truth must be scrutinized and assessed ultimately in the light of the Gospel itself. There is no judge or arbiter that is superior to it.” (no. 24)

“As for the Church, however, [Rev. Phan’s book] argues that the claim for her uniqueness and universality ‘should be abandoned altogether.’40 With regard to this claim, the book notes that ‘what arouses much skepticism and even outrage is that a human institution such as the Christian church, with a history of light and darkness, a mixture of good and evil, claims to be the exclusive vessel of divine grace while there is plenty of evidence that other religious institutions, no less than the church, have been instrumental in achieving good (and, of course, evil as well).’ While it is not clear whether or not this passage represents precisely the position of the author, the reasons that are in fact given for abandonment of the claim for the uniqueness and universality of the Church all concern the same issue: the humanness of the Church and her historical entanglement with sin and injustice. The Church, however, is not simply an institution like other institutions. It is true that the Church is composed of human beings and, in this sense, she is a human institution. However, Jesus, the incarnate Son of God, in accordance with his Father’s will, instituted the Church through his life, death and resurrection. At Pentecost Jesus sent the Holy Spirit, the promise of his Father, upon the disciples and from that moment the Spirit became the source of the Church’s life and holiness. The Church depends upon the presence of the Spirit, who is at work in her.

Thus, the Church is also a divine institution.” (no. 27)

“According to the Second Vatican Council, the Church as the messianic people of God is ‘a lasting and sure seed of unity, hope and salvation for the whole human race. Established by Christ as a communion of life, charity and truth, it is also used by Him as an instrument for the redemption of all, and is sent forth into the whole world as the light of the world and the salt of the earth.’ The Church is the indispensable ‘universal sacrament of salvation’ that has been instituted by Christ himself and that continues to be sustained by him:

Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself. Rising from the dead He sent His life-giving Spirit upon His disciples and through Him has established His Body which is the Church as the universal sacrament of salvation. Sitting at the right hand of the Father, He is continually active in the world that He might lead men to the Church and through it join them to Himself and that He might make them partakers of His glorious life by nourishing them with His own Body and Blood.

“Because the Church is the universal sacrament of salvation, whatever grace is offered to individuals in whatever various circumstances, including non-Christians, must be seen in relationship to the Church, for she is always united to Jesus Christ, the source of all grace and holiness. Since all grace flows from our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ through his Church, ‘it is clear that it would be contrary to the faith to consider the Church as one way of salvation alongside those constituted by the other religions, seen as complementary to the Church or substantially equivalent to her.’” (nos. 30–31)

The Jewish People and Their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible
(2001), Pontifical Biblical Commission

“The basic theological presupposition is that God’s salvific plan which culminates in Christ (cf. Ep 1:3–14) is a unity, but that it is realised progressively over the course of time. Both the unity and the gradual realisation are important; likewise, continuity in certain points and discontinuity in others. From the outset, the action of God regarding human beings has tended towards final fulfilment and, consequently, certain aspects that remain constant began to appear: God reveals himself, calls, confers a mission, promises, liberates, makes a covenant. The first realisations, though provisional and imperfect, already give a glimpse of the final plenitude. This is particularly evident in certain important themes which are developed throughout the entire Bible, from Genesis to Revelation: the way, the banquet, God’s dwelling among men. Beginning from a continuous re-reading of events and texts, the Old Testament itself progressively opens up a perspective of fulfilment that is final and definitive. The Exodus, the primordial experience of Israel’s faith (cf. Dt 6:20–25; 26:5–9) becomes the symbol of final salvation. Liberation from the Babylonian Exile and the prospect of an eschatological salvation are described as a new Exodus.41 Christian interpretation is situated along these lines with this difference, that the fulfilment is already substantially realised in the mystery of Christ.” (no. 21)

The Letter to the Hebrews quotes in extenso the prophetic message of the ‘new covenant’ and proclaims its fulfilment in Christ ‘mediator of the new covenant.’ It demonstrates the insufficiency of the cultic institutions of the ‘first covenant’; priesthood and sacrifices were incapable of overcoming the obstacle set by sins, and incapable of establishing an authentic mediation between God and his people. Those institutions are now abrogated to make way for the sacrifice and priesthood of Christ (Heb 7:18–19; 10:9). For Christ has overcome all obstacles by his redemptive obedience (Heb 5:8–9; 10:9–10), and has opened access to God for all believers (Heb 4:14–16; 10:19–22). In this way, the covenant announced and prefigured in the Old Testament is fulfilled.” (no. 42)

Dominus Iesus

“There is only one salvific economy of the One and Triune God, realized in the mystery of the incarnation, death, and resurrection of the Son of God, actualized with the cooperation of the Holy Spirit, and extended in its salvific value to all humanity and to the entire universe. No one, therefore, can enter into communion with God except through Christ, by the working of the Holy Spirit.” (no. 12)

“It is clear that it would be contrary to the faith to consider the Church as one way of salvation alongside those constituted by the other religions, seen as complementary to the Church or substantially equivalent to her, even if these are said to be converging with the Church toward the eschatological kingdom of God.” (no. 21, emphasis added)

“With the coming of the Savior Jesus Christ, God has willed that the Church founded by him be the instrument for the salvation of all humanity (cf. Acts 17:30–31). This truth of faith does not lessen the sincere respect which the Church has for the religions of the world, but at the same time, it rules out, in a radical way, that mentality of indifferentism “characterized by a religious relativism which leads to the belief that ‘one religion is as good as another.’” If it is true that the followers of other religions can receive divine grace, it is also certain that objectively speaking they are in a gravely deficient situation in comparison with those who, in the Church, have the fullness of the means of salvation.” (no. 22)

“Because she believes in God’s universal plan of salvation, the Church must be missionary. Inter-religious dialogue, therefore, as part of her evangelizing mission, is just one of the actions of the Church in her mission ad gentes. . . . Indeed, the Church . . . must be primarily committed to proclaiming to all people the truth definitively revealed by the Lord, and to announcing the necessity of conversion to Jesus Christ and of adherence to the Church through Baptism and the other sacraments, in order to participate fully in communion with God, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Thus, the certainty of the universal salvific will of God does not diminish, but rather increases the duty and urgency of the proclamation of salvation and of conversion to the Lord Jesus Christ.” (emphasis added)

Redemptoris Missio

“If we go back to the beginnings of the Church, we find a clear affirmation that Christ is the one Savior of all, the only one able to reveal God and lead to God. In reply to the Jewish religious authorities who question the apostles about the healing of the lame man, Peter says: ‘By the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, by him this man is standing before you well. . . . And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved’ (Acts 4:10, 12). This statement, which was made to the Sanhedrin, has a universal value, since for all people—Jews and Gentiles alike—salvation can only come from Jesus Christ.” (no. 5)

“Inter-religious dialogue is a part of the Church’s evangelizing mission. Understood as a method and means of mutual knowledge and enrichment, dialogue is not in opposition to the mission ad gentes; indeed, it has special links with that mission and is one of its expressions. This mission, in fact, is addressed to those who do not know Christ and his Gospel, and who belong for the most part to other religions. In Christ, God calls all peoples to himself and he wishes to share with them the fullness of his revelation and love. He does not fail to make himself present in many ways, not only to individuals but also to entire peoples through their spiritual riches, of which their religions are the main and essential expression, even when they contain ‘gaps, insufficiencies and errors.’ All of this has been given ample emphasis by the Council and the subsequent Magisterium, without detracting in any way from the fact that salvation comes from Christ and that dialogue does not dispense from evangelization.” (no. 55, emphasis added)

“The fact that the followers of other religions can receive God’s grace and be saved by Christ apart from the ordinary means which he has established does not thereby cancel the call to faith and baptism which God wills for all people. Indeed Christ himself while expressly insisting on the need for faith and baptism, at the same time confirmed the need for the Church, into which people enter through Baptism as through a door. Dialogue should be conducted and implemented with the conviction that the Church is the ordinary means of salvation and that she alone possesses the fullness of the means of salvation.” (emphasis added)

The Church and Racism: Towards a More Fraternal Society

“With Christ, all are called to enter through faith into the definitive Covenant with God, over and above circumcision, the Law of Moses and race. This Covenant is fulfilled and sealed through the sacrifice of Christ, who obtained the Redemption of a sinful humanity. Through Christ’s cross was abolished the religious division—which had hardened into ethnic division—between the peoples of the promise that was already fulfilled and the rest of humanity. The pagans who were until that time ‘excluded from membership of Israel, aliens with no part in the covenants with their Promise . . . , have been brought very close, by the blood of Christ.’ It is he who had ‘made the two into one and broken down the barrier which used to keep them apart, actually destroying in his own person the hostility. . . .’ Out of the Jew and the pagan, Christ wanted ‘to create one single New Man in himself.’ This New Man is the collective name of humanity redeemed by him, with all the diversity of its components, reconciled with God in a single Body which is the Church, through the Cross which killed hostility. In this way, now ‘. . . there is no distinction between Greek and Jew, between the circumcised or the uncircumcised, or between barbarian and Scythian, slave and free man. There is only Christ: he is everything and he is in everything. Therefore, the believer, whatever his previous condition may have been, has put on the New Man who is constantly renewed in the image of his Creator. And Christ gathers together in unity the scattered children of God.” (no. 21)

Redemptoris Mater

Footnote 2: “According to Gal 4:4 and its context, it is the coming of the Son of God that reveals that time has, so to speak, reached its limit. That is to say, the period marked by the promise made to Abraham and by the Law mediated by Moses has now reached its climax, in the sense that Christ fulfills the divine promise and supersedes the old law.”

Notes on the Correct Way to Present Jews and Judaism in Preaching and Catechism
(1985), Vatican Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews

“The Church and Judaism cannot then be seen as two parallel ways of salvation and the Church must witness to Christ as the Redeemer for all, ‘while maintaining the strictest respect for religious liberty in line with the teaching of the Second Vatican Council (Declaration Dignitatis Humanae)’”

Lumen Gentium

“He therefore chose the race of Israel as a people unto Himself. With it He set up a covenant. . . . All these things, however, were done by way of preparation and as a figure of that new and perfect covenant, which was to be ratified in Christ, and of that fuller revelation which was to be given through the Word of God Himself made flesh. . . . Christ instituted this new covenant . . . calling together a people made up of Jew and gentile, making them one, not according to the flesh but in the Spirit.” (no. 9)

The Church is “a lasting and sure seed of unity, hope and salvation for the whole human race. Established by Christ as a communion of life, charity and truth, it is also used by Him as an instrument for the redemption of all.” (emphasis added)

“Israel according to the flesh, which wandered as an exile in the desert, was already called the Church of God. So likewise the new Israel which while living in this present age goes in search of a future and abiding city is called the Church of Christ. . . . While it transcends all limits of time and confines of race, the Church is destined to extend to all regions of the earth and so enters into the history of mankind.”

“Jesus sent [the Apostles] first to the children of Israel and then to all nations, so that as sharers in His power they might make all peoples His disciples, and sanctify and govern them, and thus spread His Church, and by ministering to it under the guidance of the Lord, direct it all days even to the consummation of the world.” (no. 19)

“Bishops . . . receive from the Lord . . . the mission to teach all nations and preach the Gospel to every creature, so that all men may attain salvation by faith, baptism and the fulfillment of the commandments.” (no. 24, emphasis added)

Dei Verbum

Christ “commissioned the Apostles to preach to all men that Gospel which is the source of all saving truth and moral teaching.” (no. 7, emphasis added)

Guadium et Spes

“In virtue of her mission received from God, the Church preaches the Gospel to all men.” (no. 89, emphasis added)

Dignitatis Humanae

The Church claims freedom for herself in her character as a spiritual authority, established by Christ the Lord, upon which there rests, by divine mandate, the duty of going out into the whole world and preaching the Gospel to every creature. (no. 13)

Ad Gentes

“Divinely sent to the nations of the world to be unto them ‘a universal sacrament of salvation,’ the Church, driven by the inner necessity of her own catholicity, and obeying the mandate of her Founder (cf. Mark 16:16), strives ever to proclaim the Gospel to all men.” (no. 1)

“‘Missions’ is the term usually given to those particular undertakings by which the heralds of the Gospel, sent out by the Church and going forth into the whole world, carry out the task of preaching the Gospel and planting the Church among peoples or groups who do not yet believe in Christ. These undertakings are brought to completion by missionary activity and are mostly exercised in certain territories recognized by the Holy See. The proper purpose of this missionary activity is evangelization, and the planting of the Church among those peoples and groups where it has not yet taken root.” (no. 6, emphasis added)

“This missionary activity derives its reason from the will of God, ‘who wishes all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, Himself a man, Jesus Christ, who gave Himself as a ransom for all’ (1 Tim. 2:45), ‘neither is there salvation in any other’ (Acts 4:12). Therefore, all must be converted to Him, made known by the Church’s preaching, and all must be incorporated into Him by baptism and into the Church which is His body. For Christ Himself ‘by stressing in express language the necessity of faith and baptism (cf. Mark 16:16; John 3:5), at the same time confirmed the necessity of the Church, into which men enter by baptism, as by a door. Therefore those men cannot be saved, who though aware that God, through Jesus Christ founded the Church as something necessary, still do not wish to enter into it, or to persevere in it.’ Therefore though God in ways known to Himself can lead those inculpably ignorant of the Gospel to find that faith without which it is impossible to please Him (Heb. 11:6), yet a necessity lies upon the Church (1 Cor. 9:16), and at the same time a sacred duty, to preach the Gospel. And hence missionary activity today as always retains its power and necessity.” (no. 7, emphasis added)

Presbyterorum Ordinis

“Since no one can be saved who does not first believe, priests, as co-workers with their bishops, have the primary duty of proclaiming the Gospel of God to all. In this way they fulfill the command of the Lord: ‘Going therefore into the whole world preach the Gospel to every creature’ (Mk 16:15).” (no. 4)

Inter Mirifica

“The Catholic Church, since it was founded by Christ our Lord to bear salvation to all men and thus is obliged to preach the Gospel, considers it one of its duties to announce the Good News of salvation.” (no. 3)

Mystici Corporis

“And first of all, by the death of our Redeemer, the New Testament took the place of the Old Law which had been abolished; then the Law of Christ together with its mysteries, enactments, institutions, and sacred rites was ratified for the whole world in the blood of Jesus Christ. For, while our Divine Savior was preaching in a restricted area—He was not sent but to the sheep that were lost of the House of Israel—the Law and the Gospel were together in force; but on the gibbet of His death Jesus made void the Law with its decrees fastened the handwriting of the Old Testament to the Cross.” (no. 29)

Postulatum, signed by Pope Pius IX and most of the Fathers of Vatican I (1870)

“The undersigned Fathers of the Council humbly yet urgently beseechingly pray that the Holy Ecumenical Council of the Vatican deign to come to the aid of the unfortunate nation of Israel with an entirely paternal invitation; that is, that it express the wish that, finally exhausted by a wait no less futile than long, the Israelites hasten to recognize the Messiah, our Savior Jesus Christ, truly promised to Abraham and announced by Moses; thus completing and crowning, not changing, the Mosaic religion. . . . Would that they then speedily acclaim the Christ, saying ‘Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed be He who comes in the name of the Lord!’”

The Council of Florence

“[The council] firmly believes, professes, and teaches that the matter pertaining to the law of the Old Testament, of the Mosaic law, which are divided into ceremonies, sacred rites, sacrifices, and sacraments . . . although they were suited to the divine worship at that time, after our Lord’s coming . . .ceased, and the sacraments of the New Testament began; and that whoever, even after the passion, placed hope in these matters of the law and submitted himself to them as necessary for salvation, as if faith in Christ could not save without them, sinned mortally.”

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger

“God, according to the Prophet, will replace the broken Sinai covenant with a New Covenant that cannot be broken . . . . The conditional covenant, which depended on man’s faithful observance of the Law, is replaced by the unconditional covenant in which God binds himself irrevocably.” ( Many Religions, One Covenant, p. 63)

“Does that mean that Jews will have to recognize the Messiah or ought to do so? That is what we believe.” (God and the World, p. 150)